Geology (from the Greek geo, earth and logos, study) is the science that studies the Earth’s crust, the matter that composes it, its mechanism of formation, the changes it is experiencing since its origin and the texture and structure that its surface possesses currently. It is one of the Earth sciences. Geology was essential to determine the age of the Earth and to develop the so-called plate tectonics theory, according to which the terrestrial lithosphere, which is rigid and formed by the crust and the upper mantle, is fragmented in several tectonic plates, which moving about the asthenosphere, which has plastic behavior. The geologist helps locate and manage natural resources, such as oil and coal, and metals such as gold, iron, copper and uranium, for example. Many other materials have economic interest: gemstones, many minerals with industrial application such as asbestos, pumice, perlite, mica, zeolites, clays, quartz, or elements such as sulfur and chlorine.
Thus, Geology is composed of the study of all the factors that make up the Earth, such as the oceans, continents, reliefs, fauna, flora and the different processes of interaction between all these areas. The main focus of this discipline is the study of all the components that make up the terrestrial globe, from its formation to the possible changes that it will experience in its structure over the years. The main focus of this discipline is the study of all the components that make up the terrestrial globe, from its formation to the possible changes that it will experience in its structure over the years.
The relation of Geology to other sciences and their derived disciplines
Geology is directly related to many other sciences, especially geography and astronomy. On the other hand, Geology also uses tools provided by chemistry, physics and mathematics, among other sciences, while biology and anthropology use geology to support many of its studies.
Within the geological sciences, it is possible to distinguish several disciplines:
Structural Geology is one that studies the structures of the earth’s crust. In this way, it analyzes the relationship between the different rocks that compose it.
Historical geology, on the other hand, studies the transformations of the Earth, from its origin until the moment. To facilitate analysis, geologists have performed chronological divisions such as eras, periods, and ages, among others.
Economic geology is interested in the study of rocks in search of mineral wealth that can be explored by man. When the geologists find deposits, mining begins.
Seismology aims at the study of earthquakes and the propagation of seismic waves. The process of rock breaking, responsible for the release of seismic waves, is one of its main points of interest.
Volcanoes, magma and lava, on the other hand, belong to the field of Volcanology. This discipline observes volcanic eruptions and seeks to prevent them.
Astrogeology or Exogeology attempts to apply geological techniques and knowledge to celestial bodies such as planets, comets, and asteroids.
A career in Geology
The geologist is a professional who studies the transformations and evolutions of the Earth. So that you can actually understand this evolution, the geologist studies the oceans, reliefs, continents, nature, plants, animals and the interaction that occurs between them all. He has knowledge in mineralogy, topography, paleontology and biology, among others. This knowledge allows this professional to work in several areas of industry.
In Brazil, the profession of geologist is regulated by Law 4076 of June 23, 1962 and supervised by the Regional Councils of Engineering and Agronomy (CREAs), installed in all Brazilian states.
The professional trained in Geology
A professional in the field of Geology must have a good understanding of nature and its phenomena. To enjoy doing studies and researches is one of the important characteristics for this professional. Knowledge in environmental management helps the geologist in the practice of his profession. Social responsibility is another fundamental characteristic for professionals in this area.
Geologist’s playing field has more job opportunities in the present day is that of geological engineering. That’s because major infrastructure projects such as construction of buildings, bridges and tunnels, require soil studies and rocks to ensure their support. In addition, in this field the geologist also elaborates studies on the environmental impact that the work will cause.
The mining industry also has a high rate of contracting geologists. This is due to the large exploitation of oil and gas deposits on the national seaboard. The field of work with hydrogeology and groundwater studies also presents good job opportunities.
Geology Articles – Learning Topics
As Geography is a field of wide possibilities and has many disciplines, for the student the choice of the topic of geology articles should not become a problem.
Depending on the level of knowledge, the following topic suggestions can be highlighted:
- Contents on Oil
- Geology of Oil
- Environmental Geochemistry
- Minerals and Rocks
- Characterization and Modeling of Mineral Deposits
- The tectonic division of Placas
- Geological maps
- Geology of Countries, States and Municipalities
- The environment and contemporary geology
- South American Geology
- Statistical analysis of geological data
- Man and the geological environment
- As noted, there is a huge variety of topics for the successful drafting of Geology articles.
Geology Articles – The contribution to science
Before beginning to write geology articles it is necessary to identify the level of science that is intended to be achieved. It will be necessary to think and elaborate your research in such a way that it is comprehensible to the greatest possible number of people, including other areas of knowledge. But there is no good research without something new or relevant, since a very repetitive research can not present great scientific contributions. A scientific article needs to bring something new to arouse interest and always bring something more.
At the time of writing, it is necessary to observe if the ideas of the research are not contradicting each other. Introduction, Development and Conclusion should be very well aligned and related. All parties should be consistent and logical. It is essential to reread the text and see if it can maintain a unity. The text of a scientific work does not admit the use of meaningless mills.
The construction of the text
First, it is important to organize the ideas so that they complement each other in the text so that the author does not go ahead with information that should be brought to the reader more throughout the text and not at the beginning. In writing the Introduction one must always follow a logical sequence in writing.
The Introduction should be written last, ie first the researcher writes the main purpose of his work, the research method, followed by the bibliographic review and the relevance of the study.
When writing the Development care must be taken not to contradict information throughout the text and even try to avoid using too difficult words, which can be interpreted in various ways so as not to damage the meaning of the text. Always try to bring the information and arguments in a synthesized and direct way and be clear and objective so that the article is interesting and fluid.
In Conclusion the author should interpret the results and discuss their implications. Conclusion of the article may include deductions that are independent of the specific conditions of the study in question, specific findings of the study, and opinion or recommendation of the authors, eg other studies that may be performed or possible areas of investigation.
For articles that will later be submitted in scientific journals, the bibliographic references must follow the international recommendation that at least 70% of their citations should also come from indexed scientific journals. The author should also pay attention to the norms of citation and annotation of the bibliographical references of the magazine in which it wishes to publish. Most scientific publications follow ABNT standards (NRB-6023, August 2002).
Sharing Your Knowledge
After completing an article it is important to try to publish it in magazines of scientific dissemination, since it is from the publication that you can share your knowledge with other researchers. In addition, it is also a great opportunity to submit your work for the evaluation of other specialists. Before submitting an article for analysis, carefully observe the format required in each publication, because some journals have specific standards that must be followed, including standardization of style, number of characters, and other references.
After disseminating his research, the author needs to observe the repercussion of his work in the scientific world and the academic contributions of his research.